College As An Investment, And Average Lifetime Earnings

The choice of what to invest in is prudently influenced by the rational choice theory in economic which assists an investor in settling for the best available option with the greatest benefit. College can be perceived in different ways regarding investment aspect when looking for someone to pay to write paper and looking at the benefits and satisfaction derived as well as its shortcomings and limitations.

Recently there have been great discussions on the importance of attending college.  However, most reports exhibit that attaining a college degree is still an important investment to make in the present time. With respect to a report on Forbes by Troy Onink, despite the factor that investing in college has a higher marginal cost compared to just acquiring a high school diploma, the marginal benefit of this investment is also high as well (Onink, 2014). The report states that the marginal benefit of investing in college education is about one million dollars annually. In particular, individuals who attended college earn a million dollars higher than individuals who just have a high school diploma. In accordance to the report, it is evident that investing in college education is a good investment since the marginal benefit exceeds the marginal cost and keeps increasing in an individual’s life.

A different perspective however strongly disagrees with this perception, pointing out to the view that having a college degree does not automatically qualify you to get higher wages in return. Colleges are known for accepting academically weak students with little interest for academic pursuits, simply because having a degree boosts earnings. This forces these students to get their degrees in fields with less demand. After graduating, such people can hardly get jobs, and instead end up working in fields outside their qualifications (Capital, 2013). Employers reward graduates not only for their credentials, but most importantly by their capabilities. In this day and age the job market is flooded with jobless college graduates, a clear indication that time and money spent on college is quite often wasted. This therefore dispels the attribute of marginal cost and marginal benefit in college as an investment. It is merely average lifetime earnings.

 

Mexico: Social environment

Human development index

Mexico is characteristically divided into the north and south in terms of the human development index.  Usually, the northern and Yucatan peninsula states often reveals HDI values that are rated as medium or higher in comparison to southern states. This is relatively due to the huge disparities in the levels of education (Economic freedom). Chile has risen to number 40 on the human development index according to the UN. According to this index, Chile is the highest ranking nation in Latin America followed by Argentina. This index normal incorporates data from factors such as education, health, as well as the general standards of living. Chile has been gradually rising since 1980 (Economic freedom). The rapid improvement in Chile’s HDI is due to its emphasis on encouraging foreign direct invest and use of modern technology in most of its economic sectors. Chile has illustrated how a strong emphasis on human development and pragmatic policies from government can create opportunities in the economic environment facilitated by globalization.

Population and growth

As at July 2014, Mexico was estimated to have a total population of about 123,799,215 people. The total population of the country is estimated to account for about 1.7% of the entire global population. Moreover, Mexico is ranked at number 11 in terms of its population density in the world. Over the years the population has been growing at an alarming rate, which is estimated to be 1.2% annually (Vargas-Hernàndez, & Noruzi). As at January 2016, the total population of Chile was estimated at 18.05 million people. This represented an increase of about 1.07% in comparison to the population the previous year. The average annual increase in population is estimated at 0.9%. The population density in the country is estimated at 23.9 persons per every square kilometer, which is significantly lower than that of Mexico (IndexMundi).

The Problem of Inability to access Health Care by the Vulnerable Population in the United States Part II

The state with the guidance of the PPACA puts effort to offer affordable health care to vulnerable populations. The issuance of affordable healthcare entails offering discounts on some form of medication and to some groups of people who are not in a position to raise the right amount. Apart from offering health services at relatively affordable fees, the bodies and individuals in charge of offering services to these groups work towards offering quality health services that may have positive effects on patients’ health and general well-being (Boothe, 2014). An example of a program that seeks to improve the health of citizens who belong to the lower class is the Obamacare that was initiated by the President in 2010 Murdock (2012). The program treats every citizen as equal when receiving medical aid, and forbids any form of special favor or preference when receiving or offering medical aid.  A report by Murdock (2012) shows that health provision in vulnerable populations has improved in the recent past thanks to the introduction of the program that now takes effects in all the states.

Challenges in Improving Health Services in Vulnerable Populations

The government in its attempt to improve delivery of health services in vulnerable communities faces some hardships that make it difficult to satisfy the needs of all vulnerable individual who need healthcare. Cutler, Rosen & Vijan (2006) write that the government incurs a lot of money to buy enough drugs and medical equipment that would provide enough services for every person in need. The government also spends millions of dollars to hire practitioners who would reach all places where citizens need medical assistance. Apart from financial constraints, it becomes difficult to offer medical intervention to groups of people who lack the right knowledge on how they can get medical care and on what circumstances. Lack of knowledge forces some individuals to use old-fashioned ways of managing diseases, which further puts them at the risk of contracting other ailments (Cutler, Rosen, & Vijan, 2006).

Possible Solutions to the Challenges

According to Cutler, Rosen, and Vijan (2006), the state and bodies that take charge of offering health care to the vulnerable communities should utilize some possible solutions to minimize the difficulties that come with offering quality health services to vulnerable communities. The government, for instance, can cut spending on certain areas that are not very necessary to amass the right amount of money that would finance massive health programs (Cutler, Rosen & Vijan, 2006). The country can also seek for financial assistance from other nations or international health institutions such as the World Health Organization (WHO). The government and institutions that offer health services to vulnerable communities can also embark on public education processes to sensitize the public on what they can do to get assistance when they notice any form of health abnormality.

Conclusion

The government through the guidance of the PPACA has plans to advance the Medicare and Medicaid Scheme, and to offer affordable yet quality health services in vulnerable groups. The efforts by the country show that it values the health of its citizens regardless of their tribulations or affiliations. Even though some challenges may hinder the process from running smoothly, suitable interventions can help to come up with useful solutions that would overcome the tribulations. Otherwise, every individual should put some effort to improve their health status by acquiring knowledge on risks, symptoms, and possible intervention methods.

The Problem of Inability to access Health Care by the Vulnerable Population in the United States Part I

Human health plays a significant part of life, and it is paramount to take measures that would guarantee every individual a good health. The United States federal government puts effort to provide equal healthcare to every individual, though it is acceptable that some American communities still lack proper health care. The government in its response to the poor health services has initiated a series of actions and programs that pursue to expand the delivery of health care services in vulnerable populations. The government has put in place effective health policies to advance health services to vulnerable populations and has also invested in expanding Medicare schemes in these populations. Currently, there are over 46 million people who are unable to access health care in the U.S due to lack of health insurance. As a result, they have to pay huge amounts of money to providers to access health care. The government has addressed the issue of health care accessibility through the enactment of the Affordable Care Act (2010) that requires all employers to provide health care insurance to their employees. The policy also provides for free preventive and expansion of capacity to serve more members in the population who previously could not access quality and affordable health care.

Description of the Problem

Despite the efforts and objectives in the US to eradicate or reduce segregation in health care issues by 2010, significant inequalities in areas such as healthcare, mortality, and morbidity is still evident in vulnerable populations. For instance, investigations by Mechanic & Tanner (2007) show that Americans who live in low economic and social conditions have more probability of contracting illness, and are also less likely to have encountered certain types of medical service. The vulnerable groups in the US that have little chances of accessing better health services include racial and ethnic minorities, economically disadvantaged, the homeless, the elderly, people living with HIV, and those with chronic health ailments (Mechanic & Tanner, 2007). Vulnerable groups in the US also include people who live in rural areas and have difficulties accessing health services.

Interventions by the Federal Government

The government recognizes the challenges that vulnerable communities encounter in the attempt to acquire better health services and medication. The state, for instance, has created the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) which advocates for the provision of better health services within the vulnerable community (Murdock, 2012). The policy calls for the concentration on three major areas that the government feels would be of significance in eradicating cases of segregation when offering health care to vulnerable communities.

The PPACA calls for the expansion of Medicare services to improve healthcare delivery at the national level, and in vulnerable populations (Murdock, 2012). The team in charge of the expansion strives to improve health services through the coming together of different institutions through sponsorship programs. The Medicare and Medicaid Scheme that form a major component of the act takes charge of paying medical bills for individuals who come from a poor background, and for persons who come from other vulnerable groups.

Apart from expanding the Medicaid and Medicare Scheme, PPACA calls for the increase in health insurance coverage for vulnerable populations that form part of a large population that lacks health insurance covers (Murdock, 2012).  The PPACA advocates for the issuance of health insurance to individuals who live in states such as Missouri, Florida, Kansas, Wyoming, and Ohio that have large numbers of vulnerable populations. The scheme makes it simple for people who belong to vulnerable groups to have access to free medication programs, which contributes towards the effective provision of services to vulnerable groups. The act works towards lessening the conditions necessary to acquire health insurance and hopefully, this initiative will help to minimize cases of segregation in offering health services.

 

The US Constitution

The United Sates Constitution Day is also known as Citizenship Day. The American citizens usually celebrate the day on 17th September. The day is important as it reminds the American Federals to observe and recognize the adoption of the Constitution as well as those who have acquired the American citizenship. The Constitutional Convention delegates signed the document on 17th September in Philadelphia.

The Constitution is the heart of all laws, providing powers to all legislation that governs the Americans. All American laws are implemented and enforced in line with the guidelines of the constitution. The Bill of Rights, for instance, makes references to the people since the constitution is for the people, by the people, and from people. The Bill of Rights provides lots of freedom to the people. The First Amendment to the Bill of Rights Prohibits the Congress from making any law that prohibits the free expression or abridging the freedom of speech or freedom of the press (Eastman).

The Constitution prohibits the national government from exercising powers and authorities delegated to the states and the people. The Constitution, therefore, is the supreme law, having the powers that govern the national and state governments as well as the citizens of the United States.

A constitutional amendment is a revision or correction meant to improve the constitution. Currently, the Constitution has over 27 changes approved and six disapproved (Halmai). Article V of the Constitution provides two ways for amending the Constitution.  Firstly, Congress, whenever both the House of Representatives and the Senate shall deem necessary, shall propose amendments to the Constitution. Alternatively, the legislatures of two-thirds of several Sates shall call a Convention to propose amendments valid to intents and purposes (Walker).

The amendment shall only be part of the constitution when the legislature or the state convention ratifies the amendment within the stated period, after which the change becomes and functional part of the law (Walker). Some of the amendments include the first ten amendments to the Bill of Rights, the Thirteenth Amendment prohibiting slavery, the seventieth amendment on the election of Senators and the nineteenth amendment that grants women the right to vote.

The system of the United States has some weaknesses not adequately addressed within the constitution. Some of the problems include bad foreign policies, unclear distinction between individual rights such as freedom of privacy and free speech against the rights of a citizen such as the right to vote.

In conclusion, the Constitution Day is an important day for American citizens. The day provides an opportunity for residents and students to learn and increase their knowledge of the Constitution, their rights, freedoms and obligations of citizens as well as the amendments that have molded the history and lives of all Americans.